Buzău County Museum website

Neo-Eneolithic

The absolute chronology of the Neo-Eneolithic frames this epoch between approx. 6600 and approx. 3800/3700 BC The great diversity of Neo-Eneolithic cultural groups is based on the variety of forms and styles of decoration of pottery, as well as on cultural interferences. In the local conditions of the space in which they were formed, the Neo-Eneolithic cultures developed original features, through which some can be considered as the most advanced civilizations of Europe of this time. Although strongly disputed, the old concept of "Neolithic revolution" introduced by Gordon Childe is based on the profound transformations that marked the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic and that determined the present state of the human species, with radical repercussions in terms of social organization, mentalities, cultural and spiritual life. More recent theories show that there was first a mental "revolution of symbols" by imposing new beliefs on fertility and fertility in place of the old magical hunting rituals.
The Neo-Eneolithic artifacts from the patrimony of the Buzău County Museum manage to exemplify the transformations from the respective epoch. Most of the objects come from archeological research carried out over several decades in the sites of Aldeni and Fulga (com. Cernăteşti), Coţatcu (com. Podgoria), Gherăseni, Moisica (com. Smeeni), Năeni, Pietrosu (com. Costeşti), Sărata Monteoru (com. Merei) and Sudiţi (com. Gherăseni). The archeological pieces reflect the occupations of the Neo-Eneolithic people who, in addition to the primitive cultivation of plants and the raising of cattle, also dealt, secondarily, with fishing and hunting, gathering, as well as various household crafts, previously unknown, such as pottery. whose development is highlighted by the variety of vessel shapes and the richness of the decorative motifs. To these are added tools and weapons made of flint, stone, bone, horn and burnt clay, as well as objects used for spinning and weaving. Remarkable are the tools and weapons made by using the techniques of sanding and drilling. In this regard, the Neo-Eneolithic collection includes numerous unperforated and perforated stone chisels and axes used in deforestation and wood processing.
From the category of ceramics, the vessels belonging are highlighted cultural aspect Stoicani-Aldeni,special in shape and decoration by the fact that they appear in the contact area between the Gumelniţa (A), Precucuteni (III) and Cucuteni cultures (beginning of phase A). This pottery is characterized by the decoration of prominences, incised lines, painting with graphite and white or wide grooves.
In the Neo-Eneolithic, the spiritual life of people materialized through the diversity of decorative motifs of ceramics, with artistic and magical-religious significance, related to the cult of fecundity and fertility. Surrounded by this cult is also the anthropomorphic and zoomorphic plastic made of burnt clay and bone illustrated in our collection by some pieces of special artistic value.
A special category of archeological pieces that highlight the practice of magical-religious rituals are miniature vessels, paintings and "altars" of worship. The transition period from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age is illustrated by vessels that merge forms typical of the two great epochs.

Buzau County Museum

Buzau County Museum is the main museum institution in Buzau County. Its foundations were laid by Basil Iorgulescu and the development of the collections led to several stages of expansion. The current headquarters is the third. From 1977 until now it is housed in the building of the former Girls' School. The building, built between 1931 and 1937, is included in the list of historical monuments, being one of the most imposing buildings in the city.

The permanent exhibitions were opened here in 1980-1981, being subsequently modified and updated in 1986, 1990, 1999-2001, 2004, 2015-2017. The newest project was implemented after the complete restoration of the building (carried out in the period 2010-2015, based on the financing of 36,906,590 lei / 8,201,464 Euros offered through the Regional Operational Program 2007-2013).

In the 1980s and 1990s, the museum's collections became substantially richer as a result of archaeological research, acquisitions, and donations. In addition to the consistent collections of history and archeology, the museum's fund has grown steadily, enriching itself with valuable goods ethnographical, artist, numismatics and in the field of mineralogy and al natural sciences.

Under the auspices of the institution, a series of books were published ("Mousaios Library"), 2 annual scientific bulletins ("Mousaios" and "Annals of the Buzău”), Catalogs and monographs, fruit of the scientific research activity carried out within the museum institution.

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